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    Indigenous Communities


    The following is the list of indigenous communities in Southeast Sulawesi which are identified based on ethnolinguistic groups:
     

    BAJAU - (Badjaw, Badjo, Bajo, Bajao, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Sama, Orang Laut, Turije'ne') 50,000 in all countries (1977 Pallesen SIL); 25,000 in central Sulawesi (1979 Barr); 8,000 to 10,000 in south Sulawesi (1983 C. Grimes SIL); 5,000 or more in north Maluku (1982 C. Grimes SIL); several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (1981 Wurm and Hattori). In south Sulawesi in Selayar, Bone, and Pangkep districts. On the east coast of southeast Sulawesi on Wowonii, Muna, northern Buton, Kabaena, and northern Tukangbesi islands. Widely distributed throughout Sulawesi, north Maluku (Bacan, Obi, Kayoa, and Sula Islands), Kalimantan, and the islands of the East Sunda Sea. Other Bajau languages are in Sabah, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Dialects: Jampea, Same', Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Tongian 1, Tongian 2, Wallace. Known as Bayo and Turijene in the language of Macassar. Known as Bajo in Buginese. It may include several languages. Vigorous language use in north Maluku. There are schools in some villages. They live in houses on stilts over water. Access by sea. Coastal inlets, islands, reefs, sand bars. Seamen. Muslim, traditional religion.

    BUSOA - Busoa 500 (1991 Rene van den Berg SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Batauga Subdistrict, southwest coast of Buton Island, south of the Katobengke-Topa-Sulaa-Lawela area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. 84% lexical similarity with Kambe-Kambero, 70% to 79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna, 76% with Lantoi. Kambe-Kambero shares some innovations with Kaimbulawa, and may not be a Busoa dialect. Muslim.

    CIA-CIA - Cia-Cia (South Buton, Southern Butung, Buton, Butonese, Boetoneezen) 15,000 (1986 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, south Buton Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Buton. Dialects: Kaesabu, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula, Masiri. 93% lexical similarity with Masiri, 74% with Kambe-Kambero, 69% with Busoa, 67% with Lantoi, 66% with Liabuku, 61% with Wolio, 60% with Muna. Wabula dialect has subdialects Wabula, Burangasi, Wali, Takimpo, Kondowa, Holimombo. "Cia-Cia" is the generally used name, although it is a negative term. Muslim.

    KAIMBULAWA - 1,500 (1991 René van den Berg SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, part of Siompu Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. Dialects: Lantoi, Kambe-Kambero. A separate language; not a dialect of Muna or Cia-Cia. 96% lexical similarity with Lantoi, 75% with Busoa, 64% to 74% with Muna dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku, 66% with Cia-Cia, 58% with Wolio, 45% with Kaledupa. Muslim. Survey needed.

    KAMARU - Kamaru [2,000 (1979 Bhurhanuddin). Southeastern Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Buton. 68% lexical similarity with Lasalimu, 67% with Wolio, 54% with Cia-Cia, 51% with Pancana, 49% with Tukangbesi, 45% with Muna. Muslim.

    KIOKO - Kioko 1,000 (1991 Rene van den Berg SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu Subdistrict on Buton Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. Dialects: Kioko, Kambowa. Reported to be a separate language. It might be part of the Pancana language. 82% lexical similarity with Kambowa, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna, 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku and Busoa. Muslim.

    KODEOHA - Kodeoha (Kondeha) 1,500 (1991 D. Mead SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kolaka District, Lasusua Subdistrict, west coast of Kolaka. 4 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Tolaki. 75% lexical similarity with Rahambuu; 70% with Tolaki, Mekongga, and Waru; 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Bugis is used as second language. Muslim.

    KULISUSU - Kulisusu (Kalisusu, Kolinsusu, Kolensusu) 22,000 (1995 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu and Bonegunu subdistricts on the northeast corner of Buton Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Bungku. 81% lexical similarity between dialects, 77% with Taloki, 75% with Koroni, 66% with Wawonii and the Bungku group, 65% with Moronene, 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups. Muslim. Survey needed.

    KUMBERAHA - Kumberaha 250 (1995 SIL). Lasalimu Subdistrict in sutheast Buton Island. Unclassified. Muslim.

    LASALIMU - Lasalimu 2,000 (1979 Bhurhanuddin). Southeastern part of Buton Island, Lasalimu Subdistrict, southeast Sulawesi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Buton. 68% lexical similarity with Kamaru, 64% with Cia-Cia, 57% with Tukangbesi, 51% with Pancana, 50% with Wolio and Muna. Muslim.

    LIABUKU - Liabuku 500 to 1,500 possibly (1991 R. van den Berg SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, one village north of Baubau in Bungi and Kapontori districts, south Buton. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. Quite divergent from other Muna varieties; it may be part of the Pancana language. 82% lexical similarity with the Burukene dialect of Muna, 72% to 76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko. Muslim.

    MORONENE - Moronene (Maronene) 31,000, including 20,000 in Moronene, 11,000 in Tokotu'a (1991 D. Mead SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Buton District. Tokotu'a dialect is on Kabaena Island, Wita Ea is on the mainland portion of Buton District opposite Kabaena, with Rumbia subdialect in Rubia Subdistrict, and Poleang subdialect in Poleang, Poleang Timur, and Watubangga Subdistrict of Kolaka District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Bungku. Dialects: Wita Ea (Rumbia, Poleang, Moronene), Tokotu'a (Kabaena). Moronene dialect has 80% lexical similarity with Tokotu'a; 68% with Wawonii-Menui, 66% with Kulisusu, 65% with Taloki, Koroni, Tulambatu, 64% with Bungku, and 57% with Tolaki. Formerly a kingdom. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:5%, 1:15%, 2:67%, 3:12.5%, 4:.5%, 5:0%. Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

    MUNA - Muna (Wuna, Mounan) 227,000 (1989 van den Berg), including 600 in Ambon (1985 SIL). 150,000 Standard Muna, 10,000 Tiworo, 7,000 Siompu, 60,000 Gumas (1989 van den Berg). Muna Island off southeast Sulawesi, northwest coast of Buton Island, and Ambon, central Maluku. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Gumas (Southern Muna), Siompu, Tiworo (Eastern Muna). Wuna is their self-name. 71% lexical similarity with Pancana, 62% with Cia-Cia, 52% with Wolio, 50% with Lasalimu, 47% with Tukangbesi, 45% with Kamaru. Subdialects of Standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gumas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, Burukene. Muslim, Christian.

    PANCANA - Pancana (Pantjana) 15,000 (1979 Bhurhanuddin). Southeast Sulawesi, near Muna, central Buton Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Muna. Dialects: Kapontori, Kalende (Lawele), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. 71% lexical similarity with Muna, 57% with Cia-Cia. May be more than one language; survey needed. Muslim.

    RAHAMBUU - Rahambuu (Wiau, Wiaoe) 5,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kolaka District, Pakue Subdistrict, west coast north of the Kodeoha. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Tolaki. 87% lexical similarity between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha, 70% with Tolaki, Mekongga, and Waru; 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Muslim.

    TALOKI - Taloki (Taluki) 500 (1995 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, northwest coast Buton Island, Wakorumba Subdistrict, Maligano village, and possibly some on south Buton Island, Kapontori Subdistrict, Wakalambe village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki. 77% lexical similarity with Kulisusu; 75% with Koroni; 66% with Wawonii, Bungku, Tulambatu; 65% with Moronene. Speakers are reported to have a high bilingualism in Muna. Muslim.

    TOLAKI - Tolaki (To'olaki, Lolaki, Lalaki, Laki, Kolaka, "Noie", "Noihe", "Nehina", "Nohina", "Nahina", "Akido") 281,000, including 230,000 Konawe, 50,000 Mekongga, 650 Asera, fewer than 100 Wiwirano, 200 Laiwui (1991 D. Mead SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kendari and Kolaka districts. Mekongga are in the Mekongga Mts. on the western edge of the group near Soroako. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Tolaki. Dialects: Wiwirano, Asera, Konawe (Kendari), Mekongga (Bingkokak), Norio, Konio, Tamboki (Tambbuoki), Laiwui (Kioki). Wiwirano has 88% lexical similarity with Asera, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui. Intelligibility testing is needed with the dialects listed above, Mekongga, and Waru. Negative names are no longer in use. Wiwirano is spoken only by older people. Dictionary. Grammar. Muslim, Christian. Selections 1947. Work in progress.

    TUKANGBESI NORTH - Tukangbesi North (Wakatobi) 120,000 including 60,000 in Maluku (1995 SIL); several hundred in Singapore. Northern islands of Tukangbesi Archipelago, Kaledupa and Wanci, off Southeast Sulawesi; several hundreds in Singapore and Baubau city; on Bacan, Taliabu, Mongole, Buru, Sulabesi, Seram, and Ambon islands in Maluku; Irian Jaya; and Sumbawa. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wanji, Wantji, Wanje, Wangi- Wangi). 80% lexical similarity between Kaledupa and Wanci; they may be separate languages. 70% to 75% with Tukangbesi South, 48% with Lasalimu, 47% with Cia-Cia, 40% with Kamaru, an average of 35% with other nearby languages. Muslim.

    TUKANGBESI SOUTH - Tukangbesi South (Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi) 130,000 including 100,000 in Maluku (1995 SIL). Southern islands of Tukangbesi archipelago, (Binongko and Tomea islands) off the southeast Sulawesi; Taliabu, Mongole, Sulabesi, Buru, Seram, Ambon, and Alor islands in Maluku; Bonerate dialect in Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands in Selayar District, South Sulawesi; numerous settlements throughout western Irian Jaya. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Dialects: Binongko, Tomea (Tomia). Binongko has 85% lexical similarity, with Tomea 81% with Bonerate, Tomea 79% with Bonerate. 70% to 75% with Tukangbesi North, 48% with Cia-Cia, 49% with Lasalimu, average of 35% with other nearby languages. Muslim.

    WARU - Waru (Mopute, Mapute) 350 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Kendari District, Asera Subdistrict, Mopute village by the Lindu River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Tolaki. Dialects: Waru, Lalomerui. Waru dialect has 86% lexical similarity with Lalomerui, 79% with Tolaki dialects and Mekongga, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Intelligibility testing is needed with Tolaki. Muslim.

    WAWONII - Wawonii (Wowonii) 22,000, including 14,000 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui (1991 D. Mead SIL). Southeast Sulawesi, Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Central, Bungku-Mori-Tolaki, Bungku. Dialects: WAWONII, MENUI. 75% lexical similarity with Bungku and Tulambatu; 66% with Taloki, Kulisusu, and Koroni; 65% with Moronene. Muslim.

    WOLIO - WOLIO (Baubau, Buton, Butung, Butonese, Boetoneezen) 25,000 to 35,000 (1990). Southwestern part of Buton Island in Bau-Bau and surrounding communities, southeast Sulawesi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Buton. Wolio is the former court language of the Sultan at Baubau and a few surrounding communities, and formerly used by the nobility in the region. Official regional language. It had an Arabic based script. The name 'Buton' is usually used generically inside southeast Sulawesi to refer to Wolio; outside southeast Sulawesi it refers to people from southeast Sulawesi, or is sometimes confused with Bajau people as sailors. 61% lexical similarity with Cia-Cia, 60% with Masiri and Lantoi. Dialect survey is needed in south and central Buton, Bungi, Sorawolio, Kapontori, Pasar Wajo, Sampolawa, Betoambari, and Batauga districts. Trade language. Muslim.